This information is important and every patient using PIAC services should read and understand this information. You will be required to sign a declaration that you have read and understood this information.
Every surgical procedure carries risk and you should discuss and understand the possible risks and complications with your plastic surgeon so you are fully informed before surgery.
For surgical procedures completed at Phuket International Aesthetic Center (PIAC) complications are extremely rare. However expected results may not be what you anticipated. Many clients present at PIAC with expectations which cannot be achieved and are beyond the skill and expertise of the surgeon. Candidates for plastic surgery should have real and achievable expectations and clearly understand that the outcomes should be realistic.
All candidates should discuss expected outcomes with their surgeon before surgery, and they should also be well informed of what outcomes are likely. If in doubt about expected outcomes, candidates should obtain a second or even third opinion in order to ensure that the surgical outcome is realistic.
Prior to having any surgical procedure at PIAC, all candidates must be informed of any risk and complication and must sign a statement of consent, clearly confirming that they have read and understand the risks and complications that may occur.
At PIAC, all unexpected outcomes and complications post surgery will be discussed between the client, surgeon and PIAC with the aim of resolving these issues to the satisfaction of all parties. In most cases, PIAC will perform any required follow up surgery at no, or reduced charge to the patient. In other cases, and particularly where unexpected outcomes are not foreseen, are of no fault of the surgeon or PIAC, or where clients remain dissatisfied, mediation between the parties can occur. PIAC also has an arbitration and clinical review process that is responsible for resolving disputes. However, candidates should be reminded that complications and unexpected outcomes are rare, that PIAC surgeons are fully accredited and comply with licensing arrangements in Thailand and are specialists in their field.
Risk and Complications
Surgery has risks and complications, so does anesthesia. Also each procedure carries its own specific risks and complications. This section discusses the general surgical and anesthetic risks and complications. Specific procedure risks and complications are outlined in the information sections related to the specific procedure.
To reduce your risk, you must inform your surgeon about any medications you are taking and let them know your complete medical history. It is in your interest to fully disclose all of this information with your surgeon.
General Surgical Risks and Complications
Bleeding is normal with any procedure and is usually minimal. However, if there is excessive bleeding, it can create major complications. If this occurs during surgery, your plastic surgeon and anesthesiologist will be aware of by pooling blood or by a blood pressure drop. If bleeding occurs after surgery, it can accumulate under the skin causing bruising and may require additional surgery. You should follow your surgeon’s instructions following surgery to minimize the possibility of post operative bleeding.
Blood Clots and deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
A blood clot in the veins can be fatal. Longer operating time and general anesthesia increase the risk of a DVT. They can occur as a result of a medical condition or from immobilization (which allows the blood to pool) such as pregnancy, international airplane flights, and recovery from surgery. They are difficult to predict. To help prevent them, during recovery do not stay in one position for too long and flex your feet often. Patients who have liposuction in their legs are at higher risk. Compression garments reduce the risk of DVT.
Drop in Blood Pressure
Some decrease in blood pressure is normal during surgery. However, a sudden drop due to blood loss could lead to irregular heart beat and possibly a heart attack.
The risk of infection is small and antibiotics reduce this risk dramatically. However, if infection does occur, it can be very serious. People who smoke, take steroids or have certain vascular conditions are at greater risk. The longer your surgery lasts and the more blood you lose, the more likely you are to have an infection.
If the sutures come loose this can lead to internal bleeding or a hernia. Such problems would require additional surgery.
Skin Death or Necrosis
Usually follows an infection or heamatoma and is much more likely among smokers. Additional surgery maybe required, the skin excised (surgically removed) and this may affect the cosmetic outcome.
Moderate or severe asymmetries may require a second surgery. Mild asymmetry is normal.
Usually associated with age, skin type, failure to follow doctor’s advice or factors beyond anyone’s control.
Is often temporary, however sometimes there is permanent loss of sensation. This results from injury to sensory or motor nerves.
Fluid can collect under the skin and can occur after breast augmentation, liposuction or a tummy tuck.
Keloid’s are raised shiny dome scar and is more common in populations with darker skin tones. Candidate who are prone to, or have a history of keloid scarring, should reconsider surgery and advise their surgeon. With candidates who have no history of keloid scarring, it may not present itself until after the surgery and is not a result of the surgeon ability, rather the predisposing condition of a candidate to this type of scarring and their skin condition.
Some patients have serious reactions to the anesthesia or sedation used during surgery. Most anesthetic complications occur with general anesthesia. Patients who have heart trouble, lung disease or are obese are at greater risk of complications due to anesthesia.
- abnormal heart rhythm
- airway obstruction
- blood clots
- brain damage
- heart attack
- malignant hyperthermia
- nerve damage
- temporary paralysis
Airway obstruction: Anesthesia can sometimes irritate air passages, causing the vocal cords to spasm and this can block the airway. The anesthesiologist may need to insert a tube down the throat or cut into the windpipe.
Brain Damage: Brain damage can occur if blood circulation is depressed at dangerous levels.
Malignant Hyperthermia: This is a rare complication where body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate all rise to hyperactive levels. If not recognized and treated quickly, can lead to death.
Temporary paralysis: This occurs if muscle relaxants have not fully worn off after surgery. It is easy to detect and easily treatable.
Aspiration occurs if you vomit (aspirate) during surgery and the vomit is forced into the lungs. Aspiration can cause mild discomfort, and can also lead to infections, chronic cough, an obstruction in the lungs or pneumonia.
You may have an allergic reaction to aesthetic or sticky plaster which may be unforeseen. If you are aware of any allergic reactions to any medications aesthetic, bandages or food please consult your surgeon or anesthetist prior to surgery.